Non-tariff barriers (measures) – (NTB): state measures or policies other than tariffs that limit or distort international trade. Examples include import rates, discriminatory practices in government procurement and intellectual property protection measures. Such measures have become relatively more striking barriers to trade, as tariffs have been reduced since the Second World War. A trade agreement (also known as a trade pact) is a large-scale fiscal, customs and trade agreement, which often contains investment guarantees. There are two or more countries that agree on terms that help them trade with each other. The most common trade agreements are the types of preferences and free trade concluded to reduce (or eliminate) tariffs, quotas and other trade restrictions for goods traded between signatories. There are a large number of trade agreements; some are quite complex (European Union), while others are less intense (North American Free Trade Agreement).  The degree of economic integration that results depends on the specific nature of the trade pacts and policies of the trading bloc: Canada also has a long practice for federal-provincial-territorial consultations on trade policy and international negotiations. Government officials meet quarterly or more frequently, as required, for meetings of the Federal/Provincial/Territorial Committee on Trade (C-Trade) to review the overall trade agenda and discuss the formulation of Canada`s position and strategies in trade negotiations.
This open and collaborative approach fosters information exchange and open dialogue to ensure that Canadian positions are marked by provincial and territorial views in areas such as trade in goods, services, investment, government procurement and intellectual property. Global Affairs Canada closely advises provincial and territorial governments in negotiations in areas of their jurisdiction. In addition, federal-provincial territorial ministers, deputy ministers and senior officials meet regularly to discuss Canada`s pro-trade plan, priorities and strategies. Department of Intergovernmental Affairs, Trade Policy Division Administration of Nova ScotiaHalifax, NSTelephone: (902) 424-5153Fax: 902-424-0728E-Mail: email@example.comWebsite: novascotia.ca/iga The WTO continues to classify these agreements into the following categories: It is noted that qualification to criteria of origin involves a difference in treatment between inputs from and outside a free trade agreement. Normally, inputs from one part of the FTA are considered to be products originating in the other party when they are included in the manufacturing process of that other party. Sometimes the production costs incurred by one party are also considered to be those of another party. Preferential rules of origin generally provide for such a difference in treatment in the determination of cumulation or accumulation. Such a clause also explains the above-mentioned effects of a free trade agreement on the creation and reorientation of trade, given that a party to a free trade agreement has an incentive to use inputs originating in another party in order for its products to be eligible for originating status.  Trade Policy and Negotiations, InternationalStrategy and Competitiveness DivisionMinistry of Jobs, Trade and Technology Administration of British ColumbiaAphone: 778-698-8752Fax: 250-952-0716Website: www2.gov.bc.ca/gov/content/employment-business/international-investment-and-trade/trade-agreement-policy Appendix A provides an overview of Canadian trade agreements, while Appendix B and Part I contain a more detailed presentation of the specific provisions contained in these agreements that are most relevant to municipalities. . . .